Autherine Juanita Lucy was the first black student to attend the University of Alabama, in 1956. She was born on October 5, 1929 in Shiloh, Alabama and graduated from Linden Academy in 1947. She went on to attend Selma University in Selma, and the all-black Miles College in Fairfield – where she graduated with a BA in English in 1952.
Later in 1952, at the encouragement of and along with a Miles classmate, Pollie Ann Myers, she decided to attend the University of Alabama as a graduate student but, knowing that admission would be difficult due to the University’s admission policies, she and Myers approached the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for help. Thurgood Marshall, Constance Baker Motley, and Arthur Shores were assigned to be their attorneys. While they started preparing her case, she worked as a secretary. Court action began in July 1953.Â Continue reading
Thomas ElkinsÂ designed a device that helped with the task of preserving perishable foods by way of refrigeration. At the time, the common way of accomplishing this was by placing items in a large container and surrounding them with large blocks of ice. Unfortunately, the ice generally melted very quickly and the food soon perished.
Elkins’ device utilized metal cooling coils which became very cold and would cool down items which they surrounded. The coils were enclosed within a container and perishable items were placed inside. The coils cooled the container to a temperature significantly lower than that inside of a room thereby keeping the perishable items cool and fresh for longer periods of time.
Elkins patented this refrigerated apparatus on November 4, 1879 and had previously patented a chamber commode in 1872 and a dining, ironing table and quilting frame combined in 1870.
An improved chamber commode (toilet)Â was patented by Thomas Elkins on January 9, 1872. Elkins’ commode was a combination bureau, mirror, book-rack, washstand, table, easy chair, and chamber stool. It was a very unusual piece of furniture.
Arthur Barnette Spingarn (1878-1971) was an American leader in fight for civil rights for African Americans.
Spingarn was born into a well-to-do family. He graduated from Columbia College in 1897 and from law school in 1899. He was one of a small group of white Americans who decided in the 1900s (decade)to support the radical demands for racial justice being voiced by W. E. B. Du Bois in contrast to the more ameliorative views of Booker T. Washington. He served as head of the legal committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and one of its vice-presidents starting in 1911. Continue reading
The Frederick Douglass National Historic Site, administered by the National Park Service, Ñ–s located Ð°t 1411 W St., SE Ñ–n Anacostia, Ð° neighborhood east Ð¾f the Anacostia River Ñ–n Southeast Washington, D.C.. Established Ñ–n 1988 Ð°s Ð° National Historic Site, the site preserves the home Ð°nd estate Ð¾f Frederick Douglass, Ð¾ne Ð¾f the mÐ¾st prominent African Americans Ð¾f the 19th century. Douglass lived Ñ–n thÑ–s house, whÑ–ch he named Cedar Hill, frÐ¾m 1877 until hÑ–s death Ñ–n 1895. Perched high Ð¾n Ð° hilltop, the site Ð°lsÐ¾ offers Ð° sweeping view Ð¾f the U.S. Capitol Ð°nd the Washington D.C. skyline.
The Frederick Douglass National Historic Site Ñ–s located Ð°bÐ¾ut Ð° ten-minute walk frÐ¾m the Anacostia Metro station, though walking frÐ¾m the station Ñ–s often discouraged by National Mall information workers Ð°nd tourist guide books, whÐ¾ recommend taking Ð° taxi.
Granville T. Woods (April 23, 1856 – January 30, 1910), was an African-American inventor who held more than 60 patents. Most of his work was on trains and street cars. Woods also invented the Multiplex Telegraph, a device that sent messages between train stations and moving trains. Born in Columbus, Ohio, on April 23, 1856, Granville T. Woods dedicated his life to developing a variety of inventions relating to the railroad industry.
Granville T. Woods literally learned his skills on the job. Attending school in Columbus until age 10, he served an apprenticeship in a machine shop and learned the trades of machinist and blacksmith. During his youth he also went to night school and took private lessons. Although he had to leave formal school at age ten, Woods realized that learning and education were essential to developing critical skills that would allow him to express his creativity with machinery.
In 1872, Woods obtained a job as a fireman on the Danville and Southern Railroad in Nebraska, eventually becoming an engineer. He invested his spare time in studying electronics. Â Continue reading