Louis was the first university-trained black physician, who after completing studies in Holland, practiced medicine in the colony of New Amsterdam (New York). In 1667 he received a land grant for his services.
James Augustine Healy, was appointed February 12, 1875, and consecrated as Bishop of Portland (Maine)Â at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (see Cathedral) on June 2, 1875. James Augustine Healy became the first black bishop ordained in the United States. He was the son of an Irish immigrant, Michael Healy, who became a prosperous plantation-owner in Georgia, and a mulatto woman who was actually a slave.
On 4 February 1794, the First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies.Â The abolition decree stated that “the Convention declares the slavery of the Blacks abolished in all the colonies;Â consequently, all men, irrespective of colour, living in the colonies are French citizens and will enjoy all the rights provided by the Constitution.”
Restored by the Consulate in 1802, slavery was definitively abolished in 1848 by the Second Republic, on Victor Schoelcherâ€™s initiative.