The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF) is the countryâ€™s first and foremost civil and human rights law firm.Â Founded in 1940 under the leadership of Thurgood Marshall, who subsequently became the first African-American U.S. Supreme Court Justice, LDF was launched at a time when the nationâ€™s aspirations for equality and due process of law were stifled by widespread state-sponsored racial inequality.Â From that era to the present, LDFâ€™s mission has always been transformative: to achieve racial justice, equality, and an inclusive society.
As the legal arm of the civil rights movement, LDF has a tradition of expert legal advocacy in the Supreme Court and other courts across the nation.Â LDFâ€™s victories established the foundations for the civil rights that all Americans enjoy today.Â In its first two decades, LDF undertook a coordinated legal assault against officially enforced public school segregation.Â Continue reading
Born in 1926, John William Coltrane moved to Philadelphia after graduating from high school. He mastered the alto, tenor and sprano sax and began playing in local venues. In 1945 he joined the US Navy band. A few years later, he joined Dizzy Gillespie’s big band where he stayed until 1951.
He underwent a “spiritual awakening” of sorts in 1957 and as a result he kicked his drug and alcohol habits. Coltrane was a jazz explorer, he was perhaps one of the greatest innovators of modern music. Interested in free jazz and Indian scales, he was always forging new paths into unknown territory.
Irwin C Mollison (Born 1898) appointed judge of the US Customs Court.Â With his appointment on November 3, 1945, Judge Mollison was the first African American appointed to a position in the federal judiciary that was posthumously converted into an Article III judgeship. Judge Mollison was also the first African American to serve on the United States Customs Court. He was appointed by President Truman.